Early Childhood (Birth to Three Years Old)

Website http://landscapeconsultantsllc.com/author/angelafairbanks/ Early Intervention Information

The information below is listed for your information so that you can make an informed choice in your child’s care. Communication Connection Speech Services serves children aged 0-3 and their families privately in addition to within the Early Intervention Program.

The Early Intervention (EI) Program provides services to help children develop, grow, and learn during their first three years of life. It is targeted at children from birth to three years of age who have developmental delays, disabilities, and/or who could be at risk for developmental delays.

All children can be evaluated to determine eligibility and are usually referred to the program by a doctor, child-care provider, or parent. After the referral is made and depending on the concerns you have, your child will receive an evaluation from Early Intervention Specialists (Developmental Therapists, Speech Therapists, Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists) to assess if your child is eligible for EI services.

Should your child qualify, you will work with a team of specialists to develop a detailed plan (Individualized Family Service Plan) to meet customized functional goals for your child. Then the ongoing services are provided in a natural setting at a convenient time for your family which typically means in the home or at a child-care center.

The EI program covers the cost for the initial assessments to determine eligibility after which ongoing services are paid through private health insurance (if applicable) or program funds.  The ongoing sessions continue until the child turns three or the specialist determines that the child no longer needs services.

Before aging out at age three, the team will develop a plan to help the child transition to preschool or other community programs so that they can continue to develop, grow and learn.

Contact Early Intervention by clicking here.

 Developmental Milestones: Birth to Three Years

0-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months, 12-18 months, 18-24 months, 24-36 months

Zero to Three Months Old
SEE:
  • Look at their caregiver’s face
  • Watch object as it moves
HEAR & TALK:
  • Turn their head and look when they hear a voice
  • Know it is time to eat when they see a bottle
  • Make sounds in response to another person
INTERACT:
  • Respond to comforting and touching (calm down, cuddle, quiet, etc.)
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Express comfort and distress
  • Suck their hand or thumb
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • Signal (cry, vocalize, smile) to get someone to do something for them
  • Repeat an interesting movement
MOVE:
  • Hold a rattle when placed in their hand
  • Lift their head when lying on belly
  • Turn their head when lying on back
  • Hold their hands in front when lying on back, play with fingers
PLAY:
  • Smile in response to something or someone
GENERAL HEALTH:
  • Keep food down
  • Sleep well and for reasonable time periods
Three to Six Months Old
SEE:
  • Move their eyes together
  • Grasp objects they see
  • Look at bright colors
HEAR & TALK:
  • Babble and “talk” to toys and people
  • Quiet when they hear a voice
INTERACT:
  • Try to get people’s attention
  • Pick up dropped comfort object
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Have a favorite person
  • Put two hands on the bottle
  • Usually be comforted by a familiar person
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • Reach for an object
  • Look after a dropped object
  • Recognize a familiar object
  • Adjust their body when they know someone is going to pick them up
MOVE:
  • Push up with their arms when lying on belly
  • Roll over
  • Bounce when supported in standing
  • Put their feet in their mouth
PLAY:
  • Put things in their mouth
  • Bang things on the table
Six to Nine Months Old
SEE:
  • Look at objects they are holding in their hand
  • Not squint to see
HEAR & TALK:
  • Babble meaningfully
  • Give up an object when asked
  • Shake their head to say “no”
INTERACT:
  • Want to do what a nearby child is doing
  • Move toward something they want (look, lean or reach)
  • Push away from something they don’t want
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Protest to separation from their favorite person
  • React to strangers (look worried or very serious)
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • Wave and look to someone to wave back
  • Enjoy dropping/throwing games
  • Find something after watching it disappear
  • Show interest in how things work
MOVE:
  • Sit straight up and twist around to the side
  • Play with their hands and feet when lying on back
  • Pull to stand
PLAY:
  • Play Peek-a-boo and Pat-a-cake
Nine to Twelve Months Old
SEE:
  • Pick up very small objects
HEAR & TALK:
  • Turn their head and look directly towards a source of noise
  • Respond to directions with the help of gestures
  • Tell you something by pointing, giving and showing
INTERACT:
  • Feel secure to explore when their favorite person is nearby
  • Work hard to get objects out of reach
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Actively seek a familiar person when upset
  • Show a range of emotions (happy, sad, angry, curious)
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • See connection between action and result  (such as the light switch, or dropping something to get someone to pick it up)
  • Use one way to solve a problem (even if it does not work)
MOVE:
  • Crawl
  • Cruise (walks while holding onto furniture)
  • Poke with one finger while other fingers are in a fist
PLAY:
  • Move to music
  • Bang objects together
Twelve to Eighteen Months
SEE:
  • Look at pictures while a story is read
  • Look at things face forward (straight on)
HEAR & TALK:
  • Respond to commands without the aid of gestures
  • Say the name of objects after someone else says it
  • Know the names of some objects without help
  • Get requested items form another room if asked
INTERACT:
  • Bring and show things to a familiar adult
  • Cooperate in dressing
  • Insist on doing things by themselves
  • Feed self with fingers, begin to use a spoon
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Show a range of emotions (happy, sad, angry, curious)
  • Give hugs and kisses
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • Smile when they do something by themselves
  • Enjoy losing/finding games
MOVE:
  • Squat in play
  • Walk
  • Scribble spontaneously
PLAY:
  • Pretend to cook, clean and take care of a baby
  • Show curiosity about drawers and cabinets
  • Choose adult objects to play with (keys, purse, cell phone)
Eighteen to Twenty Four Months
SEE:
  • Recognize familiar people in photographs
  • Imitate simple actions
HEAR & TALK:
  • Follow two directions with one object (such as “pick that up and put it in the garbage”)
  • Know twenty words
INTERACT:
  • Demand their own way
  • Try to defend themselves when picked on by another child
  • Comfort others who are upset
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Recover from small hurts by themselves
  • Be able to drink from a cup
  • Show a range of emotions (happy, sad, angry, curious)
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • Tell people what to do
  • Try a different way to solve a problem if the first way they tried did not work
MOVE & PLAY:
  • Run well
  • Scribble without going off the edges of the paper
  • Pretend with their body (hop like a bunny)
  • Play with adult objects associated with their favorite person
  • Pretend objects are something different than what they are (make cup walk across the table, pillow is a doll)
Twenty Four to Thirty Six Months
SEE:
  • Look at books by themselves
HEAR & TALK:
  • Respond to “where”, “whose” and “why” questions
  • Speak clearly: makes the end of words (cat)
  • Use words to tell you what they need
INTERACT:
  • Take off most of their own clothing
  • Put on their shoes
  • Help with housework or chores
SHOW EMOTION:
  • Have an easier time being separated from their favorite person
  • Use a spoon and fork
  • Show a range of emotions (happy, sad, angry, curious)
THINK & UNDERSTAND:
  • Name colors (not always right)
  • Tell you something that happened in the recent past
  • Enjoy being read to
MOVE:
  • Walk upstairs
  • Climb
  • Hold pencil with their thumb and fingers (like adult grasp)
  • Throw overhand
PLAY:
  • Make dolls or action figures talk in play

Additionally, the following information contains useful tips on what you can do to help your child’s speech and language skills grow.

Two to Three Years Old

What should my child be able to do?

HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING TALKING
  • Understands differences in meaning (“go-stop,” “in-on,” “big-little,” “up-down”).
  • Follows two requests (“Get the book and put it on the table”).
  • Listens to and enjoys hearing stories for longer periods of time
  • Has a word for almost everything.
  • Uses two- or three- words to talk about and ask for things.
  • Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n sounds.
  • Speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time.
  • Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them.

What can I do to help?

  • Use clear, simple speech that is easy to imitate.
  • Show your child that you are interested in what he or she says to you by repeating what he or she has said and expanding on it. For example, if your child says, “pretty flower,” you can respond by saying, “Yes, that is a pretty flower. The flower is bright red. It smells good too. Does Sam want to smell the flower?”
  • Let your child know that what she or he has to say is important to you by asking him or her to repeat things that you do not completely understand. For example, “I know you want a block. Tell me again which block you want.”
  • Expand on your child’s vocabulary. Introduce new vocabulary through reading books that have a simple sentence on each page.
  • Name objects and describe the picture on each page of the book. State synonyms for familiar words (e.g., mommy, woman, lady, grown-up, adult) and use this new vocabulary in sentences to help your child learn it in context.
  • Put objects into a bucket and have your child remove one object at a time, saying its name. You repeat what your child says and expand upon it: “That is a comb. Sam combs his hair.” Take the objects from the bucket and help your child group them into categories (e.g., clothes, food, drawing tools).
  • Cut out pictures from old magazines and make a scrapbook of familiar things. Help your child glue the pictures into the scrapbook. Practice naming the pictures, using gestures and speech to show how you use the items.
  • Look at family photos and name the people. Use simple phrases/sentences to describe what is happening in the pictures (e.g., “Sam swims in the pool”).
  • Write simple appropriate phrases under the pictures. For example, “I can swim,” or “Happy birthday to Daddy.” Your child will begin to understand that reading is oral language in print.
  • Ask your child questions that require a choice, rather than simply a “yes” or “no” answer. For example, rather than asking, “Do you want milk? Do you want water?”, ask, “Would you like a glass of milk or water?” Be sure to wait for the answer, and reinforce successful communication: “Thank you for telling mommy what you want. Mommy will get you a glass of milk.”
  • Continue to sing songs, play finger games (“Where is Thumbkin?”), and tell nursery rhymes (“Hickory Dickory Dock”). These songs and games introduce your child to the rhythm and sounds of language.
  • Strengthen your child’s language comprehension skills by playing the yes-no game: “Are you a boy?” “Is that a zebra?” “Is your name Joey?”

– See more at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/23/#sthash.31Vt5bxl.dpuf

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